¿Existe efecto de migrante sano en salud cardiovascular? Revisión narrativa de literatura científica

Isabel Rada, Baltica Cabieses

Resumen

La migración internacional es un proceso complejo que impacta la salud poblacional, siendo considerado un determinante social de la salud (DSS). Se ha expuesto una posible ventaja en salud en migrantes con respecto a nativos, llamada efecto de migrante sano (EMS). Actualmente su evidencia es controversial en salud cardiovascular. Se realizó una búsqueda en Web of Science y PubMed con términos referentes a migración, factores de riesgo  enfermedades cardiovasculares y DSS. La búsqueda arrojó 2933 registros , se seleccionaron 90 publicaciones: 46 reportan evidencia del EMS (a favor, en contra, mixta o neutros) y 44 describen DSS asociados. El EMS parece aplicar selectivamente en condiciones específicas y  subgrupos según origen y destino analizados. La evidencia de los DSS asociados favorece la comprensión de estas diferencias. Por lo tanto es necesario un enfoque de análisis amplio que integre las diversas exposiciones del proceso migratorio que podrían afectar la salud cardiovascular.

 

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