Distribución de los factores de riesgo según las formas de presentación del síndrome coronario agudo

Luis Mariano de la Torre Fonseca, Ahmed Martínez Pazos

Resumen

Introducción: La incidencia de factores de riesgo como la hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus, dislipidemia, obesidad y el tabaquismo en poblaciones cada vez más envejecidas han contribuido con la elevada incidencia del síndrome coronario agudo. Material y Método: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con componente analítico, de todos los pacientes ingresados en la Unidad de Cuidados Coronarios Intensivos del Hospital Universitario “Manuel Fajardo” de la Habana entre el año 2016 y el 2020 con el diagnóstico de síndrome coronario agudo.  Resultados: Factores de riesgo con mayor frecuencia: cardiopatía isquémica (51%), hipertensión arterial (81,3%), diabetes mellitus (29,3%) y el tabaquismo (57,2%). Aproximadamente un 19,4% de los pacientes presentaron algún tipo de complicación cardiovascular. Se encontró asociación entre los antecedentes de cardiopatía isquémica (p<0,001), hipertensión arterial (p<0,001), diabetes mellitus (p=0,034), dislipidemia (p=0,023) con el síndrome coronario agudo con elevación de segmento ST. Conclusiones: Los antecedentes de cardiopatía isquémica, HTA, diabetes mellitus, dislipidemia y las complicaciones cardiovasculares se asociaron con el SCASEST, mientras el hábito tabáquico lo hizo con el SCACEST.

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